Recent years have seen new observations from an international fleet of lunar probes (including, Chang’e 1, 2, and 3, Chandrayaan-1, Kaguya (SELENE), LRO, LADEE, and SMART-1). Many excellent instruments were led and funded from Europe. Large amounts of historic data exist from the Moon, and the main aim of the EuroMoon consortium is to scientifically exploit this data. This proposal’s team is constituted by representatives of the core EuroMoon team, with additional leading international Lunar scientists. The aim is to investigate the Lunar surface composition and processes that take place in the uppermost layers of the Lunar regolith, including the water cycle on the Moon.

The detailed understanding of the physics that processes the material at the surface, altering and recycling it, has been greatly facilitated by recent observations.